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Posts Categorized / T-SQL Scripts

  • Nov 11 / 2008
  • 0
dbDigger, Monitoring and Analysis, Security and Permissions, T-SQL Scripts

Server roles for SQL Server

A login may be member of a Server role or database role. Member of server roles have permissions for SQL Server instance level tasks.Following script will show that which SQL Server login is member of a particular server role.

select p.name, p.type_desc, pp.name, pp.type_desc  
 from sys.server_role_members roles  
 join sys.server_principals p on roles.member_principal_id = p.principal_id  
 join sys.server_principals pp on roles.role_principal_id = pp.principal_id  
 GO  
  • Nov 11 / 2008
  • 0
dbDigger, Monitoring and Analysis, Security and Permissions, T-SQL Scripts

Who has access to your database

Once a user is logged in to your SQL Server instance, he may or may not have access to your databases. In order to access a database, SQL Server login of that user must be mapped to database user created inside the database. Use following command to list the logins who have access to your databases. I have used sys.database_principals system view for this information.

 
use DBName  
 GO  
 SELECT UserName = dp.name, UserType = dp.type_desc,  
 LoginName = sp.name, LoginType = sp.type_desc  
 FROM sys.database_principals dp  
 JOIN sys.server_principals sp ON dp.principal_id = sp.principal_id  
 GO  
  • Nov 11 / 2008
  • 0
dbDigger, Logins and Users, Monitoring and Analysis, Security and Permissions, T-SQL Scripts

Who can logIn to your SQL Server instance

Being a DBA you would like to have information related to access at various levels in SQL Server. Primarily the question is that who can login to your SQL Server instance. Use following command to get list of all log ins who are able/disable to log in to your SQL Server instance. Command will query sys.server_principals system view and will get information about windows logins and SQL Server logins.

SELECT name, type_desc, is_disabled
FROM sys.server_principals

Result will be in following form

Access to SQL Server instance

Also you may apply filter on ‘isdisabled‘ and ‘type_desc‘. In above result set login name sa is disabled so it can not be used for login to SQL Server instance.

  • Nov 05 / 2008
  • 0
dbDigger, T-SQL Scripts, T-SQL Tips and Tricks

Beginner SQL Server Cheat Sheet for DB Administration

 -- Create PKey constrainton existing column  
 ALTER TABLE TableName  
 ADD CONSTRAINT PKeyName  
 PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED (PKeyColumn)  
 GO  


 -- Create Fkey Constraint  
 ALTER TABLE FKeyTable ADD CONSTRAINT  
 FKeyName FOREIGN KEY (FKeyColumn)  
 REFERENCES PKeyTable (PKeyColumn)  
 ON UPDATE NO ACTION  
 ON DELETE NO ACTION  
 GO  


 -- Create check constraint  
 ALTER TABLE TableName WITH NOCHECK ADD CONSTRAINT  
 ConstraintName CHECK ( ConstraintExpression)  
 GO  


 -- Create Unique key constraint  
 ALTER TABLE TableName ADD CONSTRAINT  
 UKeyName UNIQUE NONCLUSTERED (col1,col2)  
 GO  


 -- Craete clustered/non clustered index  
 CREATE CLUSTERED INDEX IndexName ON TableName  
 (ColumnsHere) ON [PRIMARY]  
 GO  


 --Retreive data from excel file  
 select [Server], [Orphaned Logins]  
 FROM OPENDATASOURCE('Microsoft.Jet.OLEDB.4.0',  
 'Data Source= 'Path here';Extended Properties=Excel 8.0')...[Sheet1$]  
 order by [Orphaned Logins] asc

  
 -- Info about locks  
 sp_lock  
 SELECT * FROM sys.dm_tran_locks  
 SELECT * FROM sys.dm_exec_requests  


 -- Track active trans on SQL Server 2005 or 2008  
 SELECT * FROM sys.dm_tran_session_transactions  


 ---------List columns in table  
 SELECT Column_Name, Data_Type  
 FROM information_schema.columns  
 WHERE table_name = 'authors'  


 ----Current Connections to a DB  
 SELECT hostname, program_name,loginame,  
 cpu, physical_io, memusage, login_time,  
 last_batch, [status]  
 FROM master.dbo.sysprocesses  
 WHERE db_name(dbid) = 'DBNameHere'  
 ORDER BY hostname  


 -- identify longest open transaction  
 DBCC OPENTRAN('DBNameHere')  
 GO  


 -- get info about object  
 sp_help ObjectNameHere  


 -- Get list of all table valued UDF in DB  
 SELECT name, crdate  
 FROM sys.sysobjects  
 WHERE XTYPE = 'U'  
 --AF = Aggregate function (CLR)  
 --C = CHECK constraint  
 --D = Default or DEFAULT constraint  
 --F = FOREIGN KEY constraint  
 --L = Log  
 --FN = Scalar function  
 --FS = Assembly (CLR) scalar-function  
 --FT = Assembly (CLR) table-valued function  
 --IF = In-lined table-function  
 --IT = Internal table  
 --P = Stored procedure  
 --PC = Assembly (CLR) stored-procedure  
 --PK = PRIMARY KEY constraint (type is K)  
 --RF = Replication filter stored procedure  
 --S = System table  
 --SN = Synonym  
 --SQ = Service queue  
 --TA = Assembly (CLR) DML trigger  
 --TF = Table function  
 --TR = SQL DML Trigger  
 --TT = Table type  
 --U = User table  
 --UQ = UNIQUE constraint (type is K)  
 --V = View  
 --X = Extended stored procedure 
  • Oct 22 / 2008
  • 4
Date and Time, dbDigger, T-SQL Scripts, T-SQL Tips and Tricks

Get years, month and days difference togeather between two dates

Suppose you have two dates and you are required to get difference in following form
00 years, 00 months and 00 days.
Normally we may get year, month, days etc alone through
datediff(yy/mm/dd, firstDate, secondDate) function. But in this case we are required to get Year, month and days difference is required together.
So get date in above format use following T-SQL script

 
SELECT '2007-04-25' as [FirstDate], getdate() as [SecondDate],  
 CONVERT(varchar(6),datediff(yy,'2007-04-25',getdate())) +  
 ' Years, '+  
 CONVERT(varchar(4),datediff(mm, '2007-04-25',getdate())%12)+  
 ' Months and '+  
 CONVERT(varchar(4),datediff(dd, '2007-04-25',getdate())%30)+  
 ' Days' as [RequiredDifference]  
 GO  
  • Oct 14 / 2008
  • 0
dbDigger, T-SQL Scripts, T-SQL Tips and Tricks

Basic T-SQL Refresher for preliminary learners

During the early days when i planned to permanently enter into Database Administration field, i searched a lot of preliminary books and code snippets. As T-SQL is core of SQL Server DBA, i spend most of time to cover the concepts and to gain as much skill as possible. During that time i prepared some code refreshers that i usually consulted later for practice of T-SQL. So primarily following code and explanation is for beginners and field switchers those want to strat careers in Database Administration. Most of concepts here will be helpful in iinterview questions and day to day T-SQL paradigm. I will try to update this post later also when required.
Code used here is run under pubs database and is compatible to SQL Server 2000 and SQL Server 2005.

 
Select 'Wellcome to T-SQL'  

 

Concatenation and alias
Concatenation is done using ‘+’. Alias is also used in two ways. Alias can be used in ‘select’ and ‘from’ statement

 
USE pubs  
 GO  
 SELECT au_fname+au_lname fullName, [STATE]+','+zip AS location  
 FROM authors auth  

Here in above script concatenation is used in select list. Alias is used in select list (fullname) and in from clause (auth)

 

Comparison on string data
Comparison operators can also be used with text/string data

 
SELECT [STATE]  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE [STATE] > 'ma'  

Above script will compare the given strings according to alphabetical order. It will return states that start with alphabets after ma.

 

IN operator
IN operator may be used instead of multiple OR

 
SELECT au_fname,au_lname, [STATE]  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE STATE IN ('TN','OR','MI','MD')  

 

Between Operator
Between operator may be used instead of > and <>

SELECT price  
 FROM titles  
 WHERE price BETWEEN 10 AND 20  

 

Wild cards
T-SQL uses two wild cards
‘%’ is used multiple match and ‘_’ is used for single char match

 
SELECT au_fname, au_lname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_fname LIKE 'Abr%'  

Above script will look for names with Abr as first three characters and any characters after these three chars.

 
SELECT au_fname, au_lname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_fname LIKE 'Ab_aham'  

Above script will look for names starting with Ab and ending with aham, and any character there in place of _.

 

Escape character
If we have to find % inside data, then use escape character. Normally @ is used

 
SELECT notes  
 FROM titles  
 WHERE notes LIKE '%@%%' ESCAPE '@'  

 

Pattern matching
Pattern matching may be used when we have a number of expected variations for search

 
SELECT au_lname, au_fname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_fname LIKE '[l,m,s]%'  

Suppose we want to retrieve four letter name whose first char is capital and other are small

 
SELECT au_lname, au_fname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_lname LIKE '[A-Z][a-z][a-z][a-z]'  

Suppose in a case sensitive column we want to retrieve book with title
“life without fear”, but do not know that without is capital or small

 
SELECT title_id, title  
 FROM titles  
 WHERE title LIKE '%[Ww][Ii][Tt][Hh][Oo][Uu][Tt]%'  

We want to retreive just those authors whose first name is 4 char long

 
SELECT au_fname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_fname LIKE '____'  

We can use negate by using <>, !=, ^, not

 
SELECT au_fname  
 FROM authors  
 WHERE au_fname LIKE '[^][^][^][^]'  

You have a column that accepts just 6 chars while inserting data you have to be careful for signs and digits use ‘[A-z][A-z][A-z][A-z][A-z][A-z]’

 

Order by
Order by may be used with column names or numbers. Also we may use calculations for order criteria. Nulls will be placed at start or end of list as spcified by DBMS

 
SELECT au_fname+au_lname name  
 FROM authors  
 ORDER BY name  

 

Distinct
Distinct is used just after select key word. Only one distinct may be there per SQL statement. Will be applied to all columns in select list
Distinct performs like group by except it does not sort the data

 
SELECT DISTINCT [TYPE]  
 FROM titles  

 

group by
Group by works same as distinct. True power comes with aggregate functions like count(). An aggregate can not be specified in group by clause. when using group with aggregate, u have to specify all non aggregate. clolumns in group by clause

 
SELECT [STATE], COUNT(*)  
 FROM authors  
 GROUP BY [STATE]  

 

Having

  • Having clause works like where with a fundamental difference.
  • Where clause defines set of data on which grouping is perfomed.
  • Having clause defines which groups are going to be return to user. Having clause generally contains aggregates as part of selection criteria

 

Compute and compute by
Compute is used to generate summary data. It is backword compatibility. Analysis services roll up is advance to it. Following restrictions are applied.

  • U can use columns in select list only.
  • U must order by compute by column.
  • U can use any aggregate function except count(*).
  • Columns listed after compute by should be identical to those ordered in select clause
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